854 - いかんでは

Summer break is over. *_*

(In case you didn't know, we were taking a 2-week break while Rei and I moved from Portland to San Diego.)

Let's do some studying!

 

JLPT N1: いかんでは (depending on)

You might be wondering why we're studying いかんでは when we've already studied いかんで (notice the lack of は): [NDL #725] - JLPT N1: いかんで.

In that lesson, in which we saw that いかんで means something like "depending on" or "based on," we found out that 次第で (しだいで), which we covered in this lesson, means pretty much the same thing.

It makes sense, then, that いかんで means the same thing as 次第で (しだいでは), which we'll see in a future N2 lesson.

The main difference is that いかんでは is more formal language than 次第で.

 

I'll be honest with you: I'm a bit confused about the difference between いかんで and いかんでは.

For one thing, there are times when both of them will be translated as "depending on:"

使う食材の品質いかんで料理の味は大きく変わる。
つかう しょくざい の ひんしつ いかんで りょうり の あじ は おおきく かわる。
The flavor of food varies greatly depending on the quality of ingredients that are used [that you use].
Literally: “use + (food) ingredient + の + quality + いかんで + cooking + の + flavor + は + greatly + changes.”


来月の業績いかんでは、部長に昇進するかもしれない。
らいげつ の ぎょうせき いかんでは、 ぶちょう に しょうしん する かもしれない。
Depending on my performance next month, I might be promoted to section chief.
Literally: “next month + の + achievement / performance + いかんでは, + section chief / department head + に + promotion + do + might (=かもしれない).”


If I am to trust the grammar experts, the main difference is that いかんで is used when showing a single possibility among others.

For example, "me" being promoted to section chief is one possibility among various other possibilities.

To give another example, in the following sentence, "the festival being postponed" is one possibility among various others:

当日の天候いかんでは、お祭りは延期になる可能性もある。
とうじつ の てんこう いかんでは、 おまつり は えんき に なる かのうせい も ある。
Depending on the weather, it is possible that the festival will be postponed.
Literally: “the day of (something) + の + weather + いかんでは, + festival + は + postponement + に + becomes + possibility + も + there is.”


Make sense? I hope so because I'm running out of explanations!

 

👷 Construction 👷

This one is pretty simple. Just put a NOUN before いかんでは.

NOUNいかんでは


Sometimes a will sneak in there, too. The meaning does not change:

NOUN +  + いかんでは

 

You may come across the phrase いかんによっては.

This means the same thing as いかんでは.

Hopefully this isn't a major surprise for you, since we saw that いかんによって means the same thing as いかんで in the lesson I mentioned earlier.

Anyway, here are a couple of examples:

事情いかんによっては、給料の前借りもできます。
じじょう の いかんによっては、 きゅうりょう の まえがり も できます。
In certain circumstances, you are able to get a salary advance.
Literally: “circumstances / situation + の + いかんによっては, + salary + の + getting an advance (on one’s salary) + も + can do.”


DNA鑑定の結果いかんによっては、捜査は振り出しに戻ることになる。
ディーエヌエーかんてい の けっか いかんによっては、 そうさ は ふりだし に もどる ことになる。
Depending on the results of the DNA test, the investigation may have to begin again from scratch.
Literally: “DNA test + の + result + いかんによっては, + (criminal) investigation + は + starting out / beginning + に + return + thing + に + become.”

 

Still not feeling confident that you'll correctly differentiate between いかんで and いかんでは (or 次第で and 次第では) in your own Japanese sentences?

Yeah, me neither.

But we can take comfort in the fact that Japanese people don't really care.

In fact, when we originally wrote our lesson on いかんで, we included a sentence using いかんによって that probably should have been in this lesson, using いかんによって, instead:

理由いかんによって、短時間勤務を認めます。
りゆう の いかんによって、 たんじかん きんむ を みとめます。
Shortened work schedules may be permitted under some circumstances.
Literally: “reason + の + いかんによって, + short period of time + work + を + permit / accept.”

↓ ↓ ↓

理由いかんによって、短時間勤務を認めます。
りゆう の いかんによっては、 たんじかん きんむ を みとめます。
Shortened work schedules may be permitted under some circumstances.
Literally: “reason + の + いかんによっては, + short period of time + work + を + permit / accept.”


Oops. Please don't tell the Grammar Samurai. They may hunt us down.

 

As is the case for most JLPT N1 grammar points, I don't think that complete mastery of this one is such a big deal.

Being able to understand it if and when you come across it is important, yeah, but most of us won't be finding many opportunities to use いかんでは.

If you're anything like me, though, you still can't help but want to master it, yeah?

頑張ろう!(がんばろう!