547 - ～出す
JLPT N4: ～出す
Speed lesson! Go! Go! Go!
In the last lesson we learned about: [NDL #546] - JLPT N4: ～終わる.
Specifically, we saw how 終わる (おわる // to end; to finish) can be attached to the ます-stem of verbs to mean "finished VERB-ing:"
ます ＋ 終わる
to finish VERB-ing
～出す is similar. We take the verb 出す (だす // to take out; to get out) (← This verb actually has like 20 possible meanings, but listing them all here would be overkill). Then we attach ～出す to the ます-stem of verbs in order to say "to (suddenly) start VERB-ing:"
ます ＋ 出す
to (suddenly) start VERB-ing
Help us, Example-sensei!
さんぽ ちゅう、 とつぜん おおあめ が ふりだした。
It suddenly started pouring rain during my walk.
Literally: “walk + -in the middle of, + suddenly + heavy rain + が + started to fall.”
Sound simple enough? Not so fast...
How to mess up this grammar point, consequently looking like a fool and shaming your ancestors:
INCORRECT ～出す Usage Guide
Step #1: Choose a verb or verb phrase that describes an action you are in control of and can choose to do or not do.
Step #2: Incorrectly use ～出す with said verb, even though ～出す should only be used for actions that are not easily controlled by people (namely, the speaker of the sentence).
For example, this sounds odd:
× けっこん したら、 りょうり きょうしつ に かよいだそう。
× I think I’ll start taking cooking lessons once I get married.
× Literally: “marriage / wedding + if/when did, + cooking + classroom + に + let’s start commuting.”
Boo. Boo. Boo. Wrong.
You're in control of whether or not you start attending lessons, so you would not use ～出す.
Since this is talking about an action under your control, you would use ～始める (～はじめる // to start ~ing). We're going to be covering this in one of our next N4 lessons:
○ けっこん したら、 りょうり きょうしつ に かよいはじめよう。
○ I think I’ll start taking cooking lessons once I get married.
○ Literally: “marriage / wedding + if/when did, + cooking + classroom + に + let’s start commuting to.”
So what are some actions that are not easily controlled by us (adult) humans?
Well, things like babies crying, trains moving, and groups of people doing things...
すやすや ねていた あかちゃん が、 きゅうに なきだしました。
The baby was sleeping peacefully, but then it suddenly started crying.
Literally: “peacefully / soundly (sleeping) + was sleeping + baby + が, + suddenly + started crying.”
とまっていた でんしゃ が きゅうに うごきだした。
The train, which had been stopped, suddenly started moving (again).
Literally: “was stopped + train + が + suddenly + started moving.”
じゅぎょう が おわった とたん、 せいとたち が さわぎだした。
The second the lesson ended, the students started making all kinds of noise.
Literally: “lesson + が + finished + just as soon as, + students + が + starting making noise / started causing an uproar.”
Speed lesson, complete!
Did we go too fast? If so, might need to start back at the beginning...